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European Furniture & Decorative Arts (IL)
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The Carl Crossman Collection Online (MA)
Homeschool Day: Hail To The Chief (NC)
Estate Treasures Online Auction; Property The Siegmund Collection of Folk Art and The Steve and Stephanie Alpert Collection (NJ)
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Majestic America: Property from an Important Western Collector (NY)
Vineyard Dreams: Property from a Martha’s Vineyard Collection (NY)
Outstanding 2 Day Antique Auction (OH)
Rare & Antique Books From the Collection of Dr. Lee Gurga (OH)
When Women Lost the Vote: A Revolutionary Story, 1776 – 1807 (PA)

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Benedict Arnold
a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army. While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fortifications at West Point, New York (future site of the U.S. Military Academy after 1802), overlooking the cliffs at the Hudson River (upriver from British-occupied New York City), and planned to surrender it to the British forces. The plan was exposed in September 1780, and he was commissioned into the British Army as a brigadier general.

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Hasty. From Latin festinare, to hurry; festinus, in haste, quick. William Shakespeare in KING LEAR (1605) has Advise the Duke where you are going, to a most festinate preparation. Festinate is also a verb, to hasten -- mainly of the 17th century, but used by Percy Bysshe Shelley in a letter of 1812. Shakespeare also uses the adverb, in LOVE'S LABOUR'S LOST (1588) : Bring him festinatly hither. To Suetonius we owe the caution Festina lente, make haste slowly, also rendered The more haste, the less speed. Noun forms are festinance, festinancy, festination, haste -- as when one proceeds with festination towards one's destination.

Daily Trivia [More]

American Revolution
In the Battle of Cowpens, what nickname did Daniel Morgan receive?
  1. The Old Soldier

  2. The Old Man

  3. The Old Waggoner

  4. The Old Ranger

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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
The passion for office among members of Congress is very great, if not absolutely disreputable, and greatly embarrasses the operations of the Government. They create offices by their own votes and then seek to fill them themselves.
— James K. Polk

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Recent Articles on Colonial Sense

December, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results01/05/21
November, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results12/12/20
In the Olden Days: A Cabinet Dinner at the Republican Court
Regional History: Journals11/24/20
October, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results11/10/20
An Account Of Two Voyages: Chapter 2
Regional History: Journals10/23/20
September, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results10/09/20
In the Olden Days: Ben Franklin
Regional History: Journals09/22/20
In the Olden Days
Regional History: Journals09/22/20
August, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results09/08/20
July, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results08/10/20

This Day in Early Modern History -- January 20th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1503-Casa de Contratación (Board of Trade) founded in Spain to deal with American affairs
 •  1513-Frederick I succeeds Christian II as Danish/Norwegian king
 •  1613-Peace of Knäred ends Kalmar War between Denmark and Sweden
 •  1648-Cornerstone of Amsterdam town hall laid
 •  1777-Battle of Millstone, New Jersey
 •  1778-First American military court martial trial (against Col. David Hemsley) begins, Cambridge, Mass
 •  1781-First edition of Pieter 't Hoen's Post of Neder-Rhijn published 
 •  1783-Hostilities cease in Revolutionary War 
 •  1785-Samuel Ellis advertises to sell Oyster Island (Ellis Island), no takers 
 •  1788-Pioneer African Baptist church organizes in Savannah, GA
 •  1800-Napoleon Bonaparte's sister Caroline Bonaparte marries King Joachim Murat of Naples
 •  1801-John Marshall appointed U.S. chief justice
 •  1807-Napoleon Bonaparte convenes great Sanhedrin, Paris 
 •  1809-First U.S. geology book published by William Maclure 
 •  1840-Jules Dumont d'Urville discovers Adelie Land, Antarctica
  -Dutch King William II of the Netherlands is crowned 
 •  1841-China cedes Hong Kong to British
 •  1850-Investigator, first ship to effect northwest passage, leaves England 


 •  1562-  Ottavio Rinuccini -- Writers
 •  1573-  Simon Marius -- AstronomersWriters
 •  1614-  Samuel Gott -- Writers
 •  1716-  Charles III of Spain -- Governance
 •  1732-  Richard Henry Lee -- Governance
 •  1734-  Samuel Adams -- Governance
  -  Robert Morris Jr. -- GovernanceCommerce
 •  1755-  Albemarle Bertie -- Naval
 •  1760-  Ferdinand Bauer -- Artists
 •  1762-  Jerome-Joseph de Momigny -- ComposersWriters
 •  1783-  Friedrich Dotzauer -- Composers


 •  1545-  Henry Brinklow -- Writers
 •  1569-  Myles Coverdale -- ClergyWriters
 •  1606-  Alessandro Valignano -- Clergy
 •  1612-  Rudolf II -- Governance
 •  1631-  Jacob Matham -- Artists
 •  1639-  Mustafa I -- ClergyGovernance
 •  1666-  Anne of Austria -- Governance
 •  1744-  Richard Jones -- Composers
 •  1745-  Charles VII -- Governance
 •  1771-  Julius Bate -- Writers
 •  1779-  David Garrick -- WritersPerformers
 •  1837-  John Soane -- Architects
 •  1841-  Jorgen Jorgensen -- PiratesGovernanceWriters
 •  1847-  Charles Othon Frederic Jean-Baptiste de Clarac -- Artists
 •  1848-  Christian VIII -- Governance
 •  1850-  Lorenzo Bartolini -- Sculptors
 •  1855-  Adelaide of Austria -- Governance
 •  1859-  Bettina von Arnim -- ComposersWriters

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 12/25/2020
Krampus – The Half-Goat, Half-Demon Devil of Christmas
December 04, 2020, HeritageDaily by Staff
Around Christmastime, many European countries are celebrating Saint Nicholas Day, usually observed on the 6th December for the feast day of Nicholas of Myra.

Saint Nicolas had many miracles attributed to his intercession, but is also known for his generous practice of gift-giving that gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus (“Saint Nick”) through Sinterklaas.

Whilst Saint Nicolas rewards the well-behaved with gifts, children who misbehaved are visited by Krampus (sometimes with Saint Nicolas), a horned, anthropomorphic figure described as a “half-goat, half-demon” on Krampus Night or Krampusnacht (December 5th).

posted on Colonial Sense: 12/24/2020
The Forgotten History of Jingle Bells
November 21, 2017, Now I Know by Dan Lewis
The first episode of the Simpsons — Season 1, Episode 1 — debuted on December 17, 1989. Homer and Marge (with Maggie in tow) make their way to Springfield Elementary School for Lisa and Bart’s Christmas concert. Bart’s grade is singing a Christmas melody featuring the iconic song “Jingle Bells.” But Bart, as seen in this clip goes with some alternative lyrics — “Jingle Bells, Batman smells, Robin laid an egg; the Batmobile broke its wheel; the Joker got awa–,” resulting in him being pulled off-stage.

Jingle Bells, the lesson we should learn, is a wholesome Christmas song, not one to be manipulated by a rascally fourth grader. But that lesson is wrong. Jingle Bells is neither a wholesome song nor about Christmas.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/15/2020
Archaeologists dig to uncover one of America's first Black churches in Colonial Williamsburg
September 17, 2020, NBC News by Jewel Wicker
A gathering in 1776 on a plantation of enslaved and free Black people in colonial Virginia established what would become one of America's first known Black Christian congregations. Although Williamsburg's First Baptist Church has long abandoned its original sites, a group of archaeologists is digging to unearth clues into this early American group of worshippers.

While worshippers met in defiance of laws barring Black people from meeting in large numbers, white landowner Jesse Cole could hear them from his home, and he often listened along with his wife. Cole offered the group a piece of property on Nassau Street to establish a physical church. By 1828, the church had a recorded 619 members.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/13/2020
Thomas Jefferson Descendant Calls For Removal Of His Famous Ancestor’s Statues
June 19, 2020, The Huffington Post by Jeremy Blum
Shannon Lanier, a ninth-generation direct descendant of President Thomas Jefferson, believes that statues of the Founding Father would be better off in museums.

Lanier, who works as a journalist and is related to Jefferson through the third president’s relationship with enslaved woman Sally Hemings, penned his thoughts in a Newsweek editorial, arguing that Jefferson was “a participant in the institution of slavery—perhaps the most notorious one among the Founding Fathers, not least because of the jarring contrast between what he practiced and what he preached.”

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/11/2020
The Forgotten American Explorer Who Discovered Huge Parts of Antarctica
March 26, 2020, Smithsonian Magazine by Gillen D’Arcy Wood
The early-1900s exploits of intrepid explorers like Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton captured the public imagination. With the benefit of cameras and deft handling of newspaper media, the Edwardian British explorers, alongside their Norwegian rival Roald Amundsen, established themselves as heroic polar pioneers. In the process, however, the south polar exploits of their American forerunner, Charles Wilkes, have been largely forgotten.

It was the round-the-world expedition by Wilkes—whose scientific collection constituted the first treasures of the infant Smithsonian—that first established the continental dimensions of Antarctica. But in a twist of 19th-century international politics, that claim to Antarctica was denied to the Americans by the pole-hungry British. Fast forward to today, and the United States finds itself in another nationalistic race to capitalize on the frozen southern continent. This time, its sparring partner is China.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/09/2020
America’s First Connoisseur
May 21, 2020, The Paris Review by Edward White
Among his many claims to distinction, Thomas Jefferson can be regarded as America’s first connoisseur. The term and the concept emerged among the philosophes of eighteenth-century Paris, where Jefferson lived between 1784 and 1789. As minister to France he gorged on French culture. In five years, he bought more than sixty oil paintings, and many more objets d’art. He attended countless operas, plays, recitals, and masquerade balls. He researched the latest discoveries in botany, zoology and horticulture, and read inveterately—poetry, history, philosophy. In every inch of Paris he found something to stir his senses and cultivate his expertise. “Were I to proceed to tell you how much I enjoy their architecture, sculpture, painting, music,” he wrote a friend back in America, “I should want words.”

Ultimately, he poured all these influences into Monticello, the plantation he inherited from his father, which Jefferson redesigned into a palace of his own refined tastes. More than in its domed ceilings, its gardens, or its galleries, it was in Monticello’s dining room that Jefferson the connoisseur reigned. Here, he shared with his guests recipes, produce, and ideas that continue to have a sizable effect on how and what Americans eat.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/07/2020
Mysterious, centuries-old rock inscription finally deciphered
February 27, 2020, LiveScience by Mindy Weisberger
A mysterious, 230-year-old rock inscription in a French harbor stumped translators for decades. But now, nearly a year after the launch of a contest to decipher the writing, experts have finally decoded its secret message.

In May 2019, officials in the town of Plougastel-Daoulas in Finistère, France, challenged members of the public to interpret the 20-line carved message, Live Science previously reported. Etched into a stone in a cove that's accessible only at low tide, the writing included two dates — 1786 and 1787 — as well as letters and symbols such as a heart-topped cross and a ship.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/05/2020
Pilgrim fathers: harsh truths amid the Mayflower myths of nationhood
September 20, 2020, The Guardian (UK) by Carrie Gibson
For a ship that would sail into the pages of history, the Mayflower was not important enough to be registered in the port book of Plymouth in 1620. Pages from September of that year bear no trace of the vessel, because it was only only 102 passengers and not cargo, making it of no official interest.

The port book is one of the many surprising objects at Mayflower 400: Legend & Legacy, the inaugural exhibition of the Box in Plymouth, Devon, which will open to the public later this month, and which is part of the city’s efforts to mark the 400th anniversary of the ship’s Atlantic crossing.

“This wasn’t a huge historic voyage in 1620. If anything, it was an act of madness because they were going at the wrong time of year into an incredibly dangerous Atlantic,” said the exhibition’s curator, Jo Loosemore.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/03/2020
If Adams and Jefferson could change the number of justices, so can Biden, Schumer, and Pelosi
September 25, 2020, The Daily Kos by Ian Reifowitz
The Supreme Court didn’t always have nine justices, and that number is not set in the Constitution. The number of justices has been changed on multiple occasions throughout our nation’s history, each time for a similarly partisan reason—namely to give one party more influence over the court’s membership. And the first back and forth over the number of justices was a struggle between two of our most prominent Founding Father presidents.

Let me lay out a scenario: On Election Day, let’s say the American people defeat an incumbent president, and give control over both houses of Congress to the party of the president-elect. In a lame-duck act that completely contradicts the very recently expressed will of the people, the incumbent’s party then takes action clearly designed to limit the incoming president’s ability to shape the Supreme Court going forward. Shortly after inauguration, the new president and his party take steps to reverse that action, steps that include changing the number of seats on the Supreme Court.

This may seem like a prediction of what might happen in the coming months, but what I’ve just described happened over two centuries ago.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/01/2020
The Hunt for Catherine the Great's Shipwreck Treasure
September 06, 2020, The Daily Beast by Mara Vorhees and Gerald Easter
In October 1771, a merchant ship out of Amsterdam, the Vrouw Maria, crashed off the stormy Finnish coast, taking her historic cargo to the depths of the Baltic Sea. The vessel was delivering a dozen Dutch masterpiece paintings to Europe’s most voracious collector: Catherine the Great, Empress of Russia. The Vrouw Maria became a maritime legend, confounding would-be salvagers for more than two hundred years. In 1999, the daring Finnish wreck hunter Rauno Koivusaari set out to find it with his team, the Pro Vrouw Maria Association.

Midsummer is the time of year when Finns get in touch with their inner pagan. Before the encroachment of Christianity, summer solstice was the high holiday of the northern Baltic. White night revels involved spring potato picnics, fermented beverage consumption, and naked dance parties (at least two of these rituals are still widely practiced). The solstice signaled the transition from spring sowing to summer growing, and the critical interlude for appeasing nature’s fickle spirits, whose mystic powers and mischievous penchants were enhanced during the midnight sun. Large bonfires were lit on midsummer’s eve to frighten off ill-tiding phantoms, who might otherwise spoil the harvest or burn down a barn. Young maidens, meanwhile, delicately tucked seven wild flowers, picked from seven meadows, under their pillow, in hopes of seeing their future mate revealed in a dream. Along Finland’s west coast and throughout the islands, revelers erected long-limbed maypoles, decorated with spruce garlands, flower-woven wreaths, and jangly trinkets. Looking like a boa-clad ship’s mast, archipelago maypoles protected fishermen and sailors against the Baltic’s spiteful water demons.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 121Online Resources Links: 616Recipes: 482
Census People: 11,595 | Pix: 5,387 (46.46%) | Countries: 10,800 (93.14%) | Dates: 4,053 (34.95%) | Bio: 10,373 (89.46%) | TLs: 1,424 (12.28%)/3,768 (48.71%) | Links: 19,096 (164.69%) | Gallery: 113 (0.97%) | Notes: 1,864 (16.08%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 142 | Pix: 2 (1.41%) | Countries: 142 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 88 (61.97%) | TLs: 2 (1.41%)/9 | Links: 118 (83.10%) | Gallery: 118 (83.10%) | Notes: 118 (83.10%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,409Broadsheet Archive: 3,213Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,735    Tagged: 6,399 (82.73%)   With Links: 4,501 (58.19%)   Total Links: 5,665
Colonial Quotes: 3,325Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5
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