The prosperity of commerce is now perceived and acknowledged by all enlightened statesmen to be the most useful as well as the most productive source of national wealth, and has accordingly become a primary object of its political cares.
-- Alexander Hamilton Federalist No. 12, November 27, 1787
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It’s a bit of a trick question, because there isn’t a sole author. That fact appeared to be lost on Republican presidential candidate Ben Carson when he said during a recent interview that Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, “tried to craft our Constitution in a way that it would control people’s natural tendencies and control the natural growth of the government.”
posted on Colonial Sense: 11/26/2015 Syphilis widespread in Central Europe even before Columbus’ voyage to America November 19, 2015, Medical University of Vienna (Austria) by Staff In 1495, a "new" disease spread throughout Europe: syphilis. Christopher Columbus was said to have brought this sexually transmitted disease back from his voyage to America. At least, that has been the accepted theory up until now. Using morphological and structural evidence, researchers from the Department of Forensic Medicine and the Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology (bone laboratory) at MedUni Vienna have now identified several cases of congenital syphilis dating back to as early as 1320 AD in skeletons from excavations at the cathedral square of St. Pölten, Austria "The discovery clearly refutes the previous theory," say study leaders Karl Großschmidt and Fabian Kanz of MedUni Vienna.
posted on Colonial Sense: 11/25/2015 Jefferson Is Next Target November 23, 2015, Inside Higher Ed by Scott Jaschik In the last week, Princeton University students who object to having Woodrow Wilson's name on an academic unit and a residential college occupied the president's office and left only when promised that the university would review its use of the Wilson name. The students pointed out that Wilson was a racist who, as president of the United States, had federal government agencies segregated, reversing progress toward civil rights for black people. Many observers have wondered which historical figure honored on American campuses would next capture critical attention.
The answer appears to be Thomas Jefferson. At both the University of Missouri at Columbia and the College of William & Mary, critics have been placing yellow sticky notes on Jefferson statues, labeling him -- among other things -- "rapist" and "racist."
posted on Colonial Sense: 11/25/2015 Archaeologists excavate 300-year-old tax haven November 19, 2015, ScienceNordic (Denmark) by Lise Brix Today, revenues from natural gas, petroleum, and oil, keep Qatar at the top of the list of the world's richest countries.
But there was a time when pearls were one of the area's main commodities, and these shimmering natural products were traded far and wide.
Archaeologists from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, are heading an excavation of the abandoned city of Al Zubarah in Qatar--a once thriving pearl fishery and a centre of commerce in the 1700s.
While there is no way to prove it, evidence indicates the wreck discovered seven years ago in the Corolla surf could be the HMS John, which foundered off the coast in 1652.
The identity of the wreck has been a mystery since it washed up in 2008. But now, after researching European shipbuilding techniques of the 1600s and wrecks near North Carolina for two years, maritime archaeologist Dan Brown thinks he's figured it out.
posted on Colonial Sense: 11/18/2015 17th-Century Letters Finally Reveal Their Secrets November 05, 2015, University of Groningen (The Netherlands) by Staff The archive of a 17th-century postmaster has been rediscovered in the Museum f or Communicati on in The Hague . A chest on the premises contains 2,600 undelivered letters, 600 of which are still sealed . Thanks to new scanning techniques, an international research team Signed, Sealed & Undelivered , led by D r David van der Linden ( University of Groningen) and D r Nadine Akkerman ( Leiden Universit y / NIAS), will soon be able to reveal the secrets of this archive .
The letters, most of which were posted in France, were stored by The Hague-based postmaster, Simon de Brienne, and his wife, Maria Germain. The Briennes held onto letters that were undeliverable because the addressee had moved, died or simply refused to accept them, in the hope that the addressees would eventually come by and collect them. These letters now represent a treasure trove, untouched by time: 2,600 letters, brimming with gossip, scandal and intrigue.
posted on Colonial Sense: 11/17/2015 November 13th- Nell November 13, 2015, Today I Found Out by Kathy Padden Nell Gwynne was that rarest of creatures – a royal mistress who was as popular with the people as she was with her exalted lover. Although England’s Charles II had many mistresses throughout his lifetime, his “pretty, witty Nell” held a special place in his affections.
Born on Feb. 2, 1650, probably in London, Eleanor Gwynne sprang from the humblest of origins. Her mother appears to have run a brothel in which Nell helped out, possibly even working as a child prostitute, but this isn’t definitively known. Her father was out of the picture during her childhood as far as historians can tell.
posted on Colonial Sense: 11/17/2015 Earliest church in the tropics unearthed in former heart of Atlantic slave trade November 06, 2015, University of Cambridge (UK) by Staff Remains of a church on Cabo Verde’s Santiago Island, off the West African coast, dates back to late 15th century – when Portugal first colonised the islands that played a central role in the global African slave trade. Archaeological excavations are helping Cabo Verdeans gain new insight into their remarkable and long-obscured history.
Archaeologists from the University of Cambridge have unearthed the earliest known European Christian church in the tropics on one of the Cabo Verde islands, 500km off the coast of West Africa, where the Portuguese established a stronghold to start the first commerce with Africa south of the Sahara. This turned into a global trade in African slaves from the 16th century, in which Cabo Verde played a central part as a major trans-shipment centre.
posted on Colonial Sense: 11/15/2015 October 21st- The Game October 21, 2015, Today I Found Out by Kathy Padden In July of 1554, Queen Mary I married Philip of Spain. The Queen was quite in love with her hunky new hubby. Unfortunately, many of her subjects didn’t share her affection, including Parliament who refused to recognize Philip as King on October 21, 1555. And this wasn’t the first or last time.