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John Sigismund
a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg from the House of Hohenzollern. He became the Duke of Prussia through his marriage to Duchess Anna, the eldest daughter of Duke Albert Frederick of Prussia who died without sons. Their marriage resulted in the creation of Brandenburg-Prussia.

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A light or loose woman. Also flirt-gillian; gill-flirt. Gill (Remember Jack and Jill) is a pet form of Juliana. Not in print before William Shakespeare, who in ROMEO AND JULIET (1592) cries: Scurvy knave, I am none of his fturt-gils; Beaumont and Fletcher, in THE KNIGHT OF THE BURNING PESTLE (1613) : You heard him take me up like a flirt gill, and sing bawdy songs upon me.

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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
Things alter for the worse spontaneously, if they be not altered for the better designedly.
— Francis Bacon

Latest Activity

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09/22/211 Census Person added/edited
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Recent Articles on Colonial Sense

August, 2021
Antiques: Auction Results09/20/21
July, 2021
Antiques: Auction Results09/09/21
June, 2021
Antiques: Auction Results07/29/21
In the Olden Days: The New Jersey Signers
Regional History: Journals07/14/21
May, 2021
Antiques: Auction Results06/19/21
March, 2021
Antiques: Auction Results05/25/21
In the Olden Days: Men Who Helped
Regional History: Journals03/30/21
February, 2021
Antiques: Auction Results03/15/21
An Account Of Two Voyages: Chapter 2
Regional History: Journals02/23/21
January, 2021
Antiques: Auction Results02/04/21

This Day in Early Modern History -- September 23rd

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1513-King Henry VIII and Emperor Maximilian I conquer Tournai
 •  1561-King Philip II of Spain forbids Spanish settlements in Florida
 •  1642-Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, first commencement
 •  1648-Battle of Pyliavtsi: Bohdan Khmelnytsky's beats John II Casimir Vasa
 •  1666-Princess Maria of Orange-Nassau marries Louis Henry, Count Palatine of Simmern-Kaiserslautern 
 •  1746-Jacob Gilles appointed Dutch pension advisor
 •  1779-John Paul Jones' Bonhomme Richard defeats HMS Serepis in English waters
 •  1780-British Major Benedict Arnold reveals John Andre's plot to betray West Point
 •  1795-Conseil of the Cinq-Cents (Council of 500), forms in Paris
 •  1803-Battle of Assaye-British-Indian forces beat Maratha Army
 •  1806-Meriwether Lewis and William Clark return to St. Louis from Pacific Northwest
 •  1830-Dutch troops occupy Brussels
 •  1832- Charles Darwin recovers his first fossil at Punta Alta (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina
 •  1835-HMS Beagle sails to Charles Island in Galapagos archipelago
 •  1845-First baseball team, New York Knickerbockers organize, adopt rule code
  -Hunger strike in Hague 
 •  1846-German astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle and Heinrich d'Arrest confirm the existence of Neptune, the eighth planet


 •  1596-  Joan Blaeu -- Cartographers
 •  1713-  Ferdinand VI of Spain -- Governance
 •  1734-  Matthew Pratt -- Artists
 •  1740-  Go-Sakuramachi -- Governance
 •  1745-  John Sevier -- MilitaryGovernance
 •  1756-  John Loudon McAdam -- Inventors
 •  1771-  Kokaku -- Governance
 •  1775-  Elisabeth von Adlerflycht -- Artists
 •  1782-  Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied -- ExplorersScientists
 •  1784-  Peter von Cornelius -- Artists
 •  1791-  Johann Franz Encke -- Astronomers
  -  Job Pierson -- GovernanceLegal
 •  1795-  Alexander Twilight -- ClergyGovernanceEducators
 •  1806-  Frederik Moltke Bugge -- WritersEducators
 •  1812-  Georgiana Fullerton -- Writers
 •  1819-  Hippolyte Fizeau -- Scientists


 •  1582-  Louis of Bourbon -- Military
 •  1604-  Gabriel Vasquez -- Writers
 •  1605-  Pontus de Tyard -- Writers
 •  1624-  Willem Pietersz Buytewech -- Artists
 •  1666-  Francois Mansart -- Architects
 •  1675-  Valentin Conrart -- Writers
 •  1696-  Dionysius IV Muselimes -- Clergy
 •  1723-  William Babell -- Composers
 •  1743-  Eric Benzelius the Younger -- ClergyWriters
 •  1789-  Silas Deane -- GovernanceCommerce
 •  1828-  Richard Parkes Bonington -- Artists
 •  1830-  Elizabeth Monroe -- Governance
 •  1835-  Vincenzo Bellini -- Composers
 •  1852-  John Vanderlyn -- Artists

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 08/24/2021
Did Martin Luther Write of the Plague, ‘I Shall Not Avoid Person or Place’?
August 24, 2021, Snopes by Dan MacGuill
The 16th century Reformation leader also condemned those who "distain the use of medicines" and "do not avoid places and persons infected by the plague." Claim: In 1527, Martin Luther wrote of the Black Death: "I shall ask God to mercifully protect us"; and "I shall not avoid person or place but will go freely." Rating: Correct Attribution

posted on Colonial Sense: 08/07/2021
Did George Washington Order Troops To Get Vaccinated Against Smallpox?
August 07, 2021, Snopes by Dan Evon
Washington wrote in 1777 that the Continental Army had more to "dread" from smallpox than from the "Sword of the Enemy." Claim: Gen. George Washington ordered troops to get vaccinated against smallpox during the Revolutionary War. Rating: Mostly True

posted on Colonial Sense: 12/25/2020
Krampus – The Half-Goat, Half-Demon Devil of Christmas
December 04, 2020, HeritageDaily by Staff
Around Christmastime, many European countries are celebrating Saint Nicholas Day, usually observed on the 6th December for the feast day of Nicholas of Myra.

Saint Nicolas had many miracles attributed to his intercession, but is also known for his generous practice of gift-giving that gave rise to the traditional model of Santa Claus (“Saint Nick”) through Sinterklaas.

Whilst Saint Nicolas rewards the well-behaved with gifts, children who misbehaved are visited by Krampus (sometimes with Saint Nicolas), a horned, anthropomorphic figure described as a “half-goat, half-demon” on Krampus Night or Krampusnacht (December 5th).

posted on Colonial Sense: 12/24/2020
The Forgotten History of Jingle Bells
November 21, 2017, Now I Know by Dan Lewis
The first episode of the Simpsons — Season 1, Episode 1 — debuted on December 17, 1989. Homer and Marge (with Maggie in tow) make their way to Springfield Elementary School for Lisa and Bart’s Christmas concert. Bart’s grade is singing a Christmas melody featuring the iconic song “Jingle Bells.” But Bart, as seen in this clip goes with some alternative lyrics — “Jingle Bells, Batman smells, Robin laid an egg; the Batmobile broke its wheel; the Joker got awa–,” resulting in him being pulled off-stage.

Jingle Bells, the lesson we should learn, is a wholesome Christmas song, not one to be manipulated by a rascally fourth grader. But that lesson is wrong. Jingle Bells is neither a wholesome song nor about Christmas.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/15/2020
Archaeologists dig to uncover one of America's first Black churches in Colonial Williamsburg
September 17, 2020, NBC News by Jewel Wicker
A gathering in 1776 on a plantation of enslaved and free Black people in colonial Virginia established what would become one of America's first known Black Christian congregations. Although Williamsburg's First Baptist Church has long abandoned its original sites, a group of archaeologists is digging to unearth clues into this early American group of worshippers.

While worshippers met in defiance of laws barring Black people from meeting in large numbers, white landowner Jesse Cole could hear them from his home, and he often listened along with his wife. Cole offered the group a piece of property on Nassau Street to establish a physical church. By 1828, the church had a recorded 619 members.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/13/2020
Thomas Jefferson Descendant Calls For Removal Of His Famous Ancestor’s Statues
June 19, 2020, The Huffington Post by Jeremy Blum
Shannon Lanier, a ninth-generation direct descendant of President Thomas Jefferson, believes that statues of the Founding Father would be better off in museums.

Lanier, who works as a journalist and is related to Jefferson through the third president’s relationship with enslaved woman Sally Hemings, penned his thoughts in a Newsweek editorial, arguing that Jefferson was “a participant in the institution of slavery—perhaps the most notorious one among the Founding Fathers, not least because of the jarring contrast between what he practiced and what he preached.”

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/11/2020
The Forgotten American Explorer Who Discovered Huge Parts of Antarctica
March 26, 2020, Smithsonian Magazine by Gillen D’Arcy Wood
The early-1900s exploits of intrepid explorers like Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton captured the public imagination. With the benefit of cameras and deft handling of newspaper media, the Edwardian British explorers, alongside their Norwegian rival Roald Amundsen, established themselves as heroic polar pioneers. In the process, however, the south polar exploits of their American forerunner, Charles Wilkes, have been largely forgotten.

It was the round-the-world expedition by Wilkes—whose scientific collection constituted the first treasures of the infant Smithsonian—that first established the continental dimensions of Antarctica. But in a twist of 19th-century international politics, that claim to Antarctica was denied to the Americans by the pole-hungry British. Fast forward to today, and the United States finds itself in another nationalistic race to capitalize on the frozen southern continent. This time, its sparring partner is China.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/09/2020
America’s First Connoisseur
May 21, 2020, The Paris Review by Edward White
Among his many claims to distinction, Thomas Jefferson can be regarded as America’s first connoisseur. The term and the concept emerged among the philosophes of eighteenth-century Paris, where Jefferson lived between 1784 and 1789. As minister to France he gorged on French culture. In five years, he bought more than sixty oil paintings, and many more objets d’art. He attended countless operas, plays, recitals, and masquerade balls. He researched the latest discoveries in botany, zoology and horticulture, and read inveterately—poetry, history, philosophy. In every inch of Paris he found something to stir his senses and cultivate his expertise. “Were I to proceed to tell you how much I enjoy their architecture, sculpture, painting, music,” he wrote a friend back in America, “I should want words.”

Ultimately, he poured all these influences into Monticello, the plantation he inherited from his father, which Jefferson redesigned into a palace of his own refined tastes. More than in its domed ceilings, its gardens, or its galleries, it was in Monticello’s dining room that Jefferson the connoisseur reigned. Here, he shared with his guests recipes, produce, and ideas that continue to have a sizable effect on how and what Americans eat.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/07/2020
Mysterious, centuries-old rock inscription finally deciphered
February 27, 2020, LiveScience by Mindy Weisberger
A mysterious, 230-year-old rock inscription in a French harbor stumped translators for decades. But now, nearly a year after the launch of a contest to decipher the writing, experts have finally decoded its secret message.

In May 2019, officials in the town of Plougastel-Daoulas in Finistère, France, challenged members of the public to interpret the 20-line carved message, Live Science previously reported. Etched into a stone in a cove that's accessible only at low tide, the writing included two dates — 1786 and 1787 — as well as letters and symbols such as a heart-topped cross and a ship.

posted on Colonial Sense: 11/05/2020
Pilgrim fathers: harsh truths amid the Mayflower myths of nationhood
September 20, 2020, The Guardian (UK) by Carrie Gibson
For a ship that would sail into the pages of history, the Mayflower was not important enough to be registered in the port book of Plymouth in 1620. Pages from September of that year bear no trace of the vessel, because it was only only 102 passengers and not cargo, making it of no official interest.

The port book is one of the many surprising objects at Mayflower 400: Legend & Legacy, the inaugural exhibition of the Box in Plymouth, Devon, which will open to the public later this month, and which is part of the city’s efforts to mark the 400th anniversary of the ship’s Atlantic crossing.

“This wasn’t a huge historic voyage in 1620. If anything, it was an act of madness because they were going at the wrong time of year into an incredibly dangerous Atlantic,” said the exhibition’s curator, Jo Loosemore.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 73Online Resources Links: 616Recipes: 482
Census People: 11,649 | Pix: 5,428 (46.60%) | Countries: 10,853 (93.17%) | Dates: 4,069 (34.93%) | Bio: 10,422 (89.47%) | TLs: 1,425 (12.23%)/3,769 (48.74%) | Links: 19,247 (165.22%) | Gallery: 117 (1.00%) | Notes: 1,874 (16.09%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 142 | Pix: 2 (1.41%) | Countries: 142 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 88 (61.97%) | TLs: 2 (1.41%)/9 | Links: 118 (83.10%) | Gallery: 118 (83.10%) | Notes: 118 (83.10%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,409Broadsheet Archive: 3,215Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,733    Tagged: 6,398 (82.74%)   With Links: 4,510 (58.32%)   Total Links: 5,674
Colonial Quotes: 3,326Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 92
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5
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