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Today's Events [More]

Hamilton and Burr: Who Wrote Their Stories? (DE)
Celebrating the Fiber Arts: The Helen Geier Flynt Textile Gallery (MA)
Engraved Powder Horns from the French and Indian War and the American Revolution: The William H. Guthman Collection (MA)
Fine Jewelry Collections Online (MA)
Furniture Masterworks: Tradition and Innovation in Western Massachusetts (MA)
Inspired Design: Asian Decorative Arts and Their Adaptations (MA)
Into the Woods: Crafting Early American Furniture (MA)
The Sandwich Bazaar Flea Market (MA)
Montsweag Flea Market (ME)
Collector’s Passion Auction (NJ)
American Indian Art: Timed Auction (OH)
Heart of Ohio Antique Center Tailgate Sale (OH)
Hex Signs: Sacred and Celestial Symbolism in Pennsylvania Dutch Barn Stars (PA)
History Speaks Series - Distilling Whiskey (PA)
Thrown, Fired and Glazed: The Redware Tradition from Pennsylvania and Beyond (PA)
Forgotten Soldier Special Exhibition (VA)
TENACITY: Women in Jamestown and Early Virginia (VA)
Washington and Marshall: Federalist Forged in Battle Exhibit (VA)

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Jose de San Martin
an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru. Born in Yapeyú, Corrientes, in modern-day Argentina, he left his mother country at the early age of seven to study in Málaga, Spain. In 1808, after taking part in the Peninsular War against France, San Martín contacted South American supporters of independence from Spain. In 1812, he set sail for Buenos Aires and offered his services to the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, present-day Argentina.

Word of the Day [More]

Divination -- foretelling events, predicting the future --by digging in the earth.

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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
Upon this point all speculative politicians will agree, that the happiness of society is the end of government, as all divines and moral philosophers will agree that the happiness of the individual is the end of man. From this principle it will follow that the form of government which communicates ease, comfort, security, or, in one word, happiness, to the greatest numbers of persons, and in the greatest degree, is the best.
— John Adams
Thoughts on Government, 1776

Latest Activity

Today1 Broadsheet added
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Recent Articles on Colonial Sense

August, 2019
Antiques: Auction Results09/09/19
An Account Of Two Voyages: Chapter 2
Regional History: Journals08/23/19
July, 2019
Antiques: Auction Results08/07/19
New England Weather: 1851 Tornado
Society-Lifestyle: Signs of the Times07/21/19
June, 2019
Antiques: Auction Results07/08/19
Travels in the American Colonies: Journal of Captain Phineas Stevens' Journey to Canada, 1752
Regional History: Journals06/22/19
May, 2019
Antiques: Auction Results06/12/19
The White Pine Series: Connecticut
Architecture: Houses06/06/19
The White Pine Series: New Hampshire
Architecture: Houses06/06/19
The White Pine Series: New York
Architecture: Houses06/06/19

This Day in Early Modern History -- September 18th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1502-Christopher Columbus lands at Costa Rica on his fourth and last voyage 
 •  1544-HRE Charles V of Germany and Francis I of France sign Peace of Crepy
  -English King Henry VIII's troops occupy Boulogne 
 •  1573-Spanish make major assault on besieged Alkmaar 
 •  1589-Battle of Arques ends: French king Henry IV beats Catholic League
 •  1634-Anne Hutchinson arrives in the New World
 •  1635-Emperor Ferdinand II declares war on France 
 •  1679-New Hampshire becomes a separate entity from the Massachusetts Bay Colony
 •  1739-Russia, Turkey and Austria sign Peace of Belgrade -- Austria cedes Belgrade to Turks
 •  1747-French troops occupy Bergen op Zoom
 •  1755-Fort Carillon (aka Ft. Ticonderoga), New York opens 
 •  1759-Battle of the Plains of Abraham (aka Battle of Quebec) ends, French surrender to British
 •  1769-John Harris announces sale of first spinet piano made in the U.S.
 •  1776-George Washington reports to Congress on Battle of Harlem Heights
 •  1789-First loan is made to pay salaries of the presidents and Congress 
 •  1793-President George Washington lays cornerstone of Capitol building
 •  1809-Royal Opera House in London re-opens after being rebuilt following destruction by fire
 •  1810-Chile declares independence from Spain (National Day)
 •  1811-English expeditionary army conquers Dutch Indies 
 •  1812-Fire in Moscow destroys 90% of houses and 1,000 churchs 
 •  1830-America's first native locomotive loses a race to a draft horse (near Baltimore)
 •  1838-Anti-Corn Law League established by Richard Cobden
 •  1842-First edition of The Pittsburgh Post-Gazette published 
 •  1846-Elizabeth Barrett (later, Elizabeth Barrett Browning) and Robert Browning exchange last letters before eloping 
  -The struggling Donner Party sends ahead to California for food
 •  1848-Baseball rules firstbaseman can tag base for out instead of runner 
 •  1849-De Kempenaer's Dutch government resigns 
 •  1850-Congress passes Fugitive Slave Law as part of Compromise of 1850 
 •  1851-The New York Times starts publishing at 2 cents a copy


 •  1606-  Zhang Xianzhong -- Governance
 •  1643-  Gilbert Burnet -- ClergyWriters
 •  1709-  Samuel Johnson -- Writers
 •  1733-  George Read -- GovernanceLegal
 •  1735-  Francis Webb -- ClergyWriters
 •  1765-   Gregory XVI -- Clergy
  -  Oliver Holden -- ComposersWriters
 •  1779-  Joseph Story -- WritersLegal
 •  1786-   Christian VIII -- Governance
 •  1798-  Edvard Bergenheim -- Clergy
 •  1819-  Jean Bernard Leon Foucault -- Inventors


 •  1580-  Laurentius Metsius -- Clergy
 •  1586-  Ottavio Farnese -- Governance
 •  1721-  Matthew Prior -- Writers
 •  1744-  Lewis Theobald -- Writers
 •  1781-  Tobias Furneaux -- ExplorersNaval
 •  1783-  Leonhard Euler -- AstronomersScientists
 •  1787-  Louis-Gabriel Du Buat-Nancay -- Writers
 •  1843-  Hamilton Brown -- Commerce
 •  1857-  Karol Kurpinski -- Composers

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 09/18/2019
Searching for traces of George Washington in places where his deeds remain cherished and celebrated
July 01, 2019, The Washington Post (DC) by Michael E. Ruane and Matt McClain
The coat of arms carved into the old tombstone in the Washington family cemetery is stained green with age. The three stars on the shield are worn down, and the wings of the raven rising from the crown are mottled.

But the ancient Washington motto, Exitus Acta Probat — “The Outcome Justifies the Deed” — is still discernible.

Although George Washington is buried at Mount Vernon, many miles up the Potomac River, it was near this remote spot on Popes Creek where he was born in 1732. Here, his forebears rest. And to this place, the impact of his life on his country and the world may be traced.

posted on Colonial Sense: 09/17/2019
The US island that speaks Elizabethan English
June 24, 2019, BBC by Brian Carlton
I'd never been called a dingbatter until I went to Ocracoke for the first time. I've spent a good part of my life in North Carolina, but I'm still learning how to speak the ‘Hoi Toider’ brogue. The people here just have their own way of speaking: it's like someone took Elizabethan English, sprinkled in some Irish tones and 1700s Scottish accents, then mixed it all up with pirate slang. But the Hoi Toider dialect is more than a dialect. It's also a culture, one that's slowly fading away. With each generation, fewer people play meehonkey, cook the traditional foods or know what it is to be mommucked.

Located 34 miles from the North Carolina mainland, Ocracoke Island is fairly isolated. You can’t drive there as there are no bridges, and most people can’t fly either as there are no commercial flights. If you want to go there, it has to be by boat. In the early 1700s, that meant Ocracoke was a perfect spot for pirates to hide, as no soldiers were going to search 16 miles of remote beaches and forests for wanted men.

posted on Colonial Sense: 09/16/2019
How to Bungle an Impeachment
July 05, 2019, The Daily Beast by Tom Shachtman
Say you want to impeach a very high government official whose conduct has been not only outrageous but extra-legal; and say your political party controls the Senate by more than the two-thirds majority necessary for a conviction; and say you have as lead prosecutor the country’s most formidable orator, who has already successfully led the charge against the official in the House—given all this, how do you bungle the job?

The target was a deserving one: Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Samuel Chase’s history of bad behavior dated back to 1780, when, despite being an enthusiastic signer of the Declaration of Independence, he hampered the Continental Army by trying to corner the flour market, and then lied about it to Congress. That earned him a scathing newspaper rebuke from Alexander Hamilton. In 1787 he was one of the few delegates to the Constitutional Convention to actively campaign against ratification. Because of that, George Washington declined to appoint him as the country’s first attorney general. By 1796, though, Chase had become an ardent enough Federalist for Washington to elevate him from the Maryland Supreme Court to the U.S. Supreme Court.

posted on Colonial Sense: 09/15/2019
Indians 101: Sixteenth Century European Laws About Indians
November 20, 2014, Daily Kos by Ojibwa
The European invasion of the Americas really began in the sixteenth century with several European nations competing to divide up the new lands among themselves. In justifying their ability to take lands from Indians, to rule Indians, to make slaves of Indians, and to kill Indians, the European formulated a number of laws.

In 1512, the Spanish King Ferdinand promulgated the Laws of Burgos which spelled out how Indians were to be treated. The laws regulated Indian work and conversion.

posted on Colonial Sense: 09/14/2019
Arizona governor says he wants to yank Nike's tax breaks over sneaker controversy
July 02, 2019, CNN by Jordan Valinsky
Arizona Governor Doug Ducey has ordered a financial incentive package for Nike to be withdrawn because the company canceled a sneaker featuring the "Betsy Ross" American flag.

In a series of tweets early Tuesday, the Republican governor said he was disappointed in Nike's "terrible" decision, which he called a "shameful retreat." Ducey said he believes Nike's action shows it lacks pride and appreciation for American history. He condemned the company for bowing to political correctness.

posted on Colonial Sense: 09/13/2019
When pirates studied Euclid
July 02, 2019, Aeon by Margaret Schotte
In 1673, in a North Sea skirmish that killed nearly 150 men, the French privateer Jean-François Doublet took a bullet that tossed him from the forecastle and broke his arm in two places. How did the precocious young second lieutenant choose to spend his convalescence? Doublet repaired to the French port city of Dieppe, where he signed up for three months of navigation lessons.

This might seem a strange decision; Doublet, who had gone to sea at the age of seven, already knew the ins and outs of navigation. Why would he bother paying for lessons? The school in Dieppe – the Royal School of Hydrography – was renowned for the calibre of its lectures, attracting passing tourists as well as naval trainees. Doublet was keen to learn some more advanced techniques from the teacher, Abbé Guillaume Denys. In his memoir, Doublet explains a practical motive too: if he got injured again, he would retire and open his own sailing school.

posted on Colonial Sense: 09/12/2019
Storm Hannah uncovers Borth 'sunken' underwater forest
May 25, 2019, BBC by Staff
A prehistoric forest which was buried under water and sand more than 4,500 years ago has been uncovered by Storm Hannah.

The petrified trees lie between Ynyslas and Borth in Ceredigion county.

The forest has become associated with a 17th Century myth of a sunken civilization known as 'Cantre'r Gwaelod', or the 'Sunken Hundred'.

posted on Colonial Sense: 09/11/2019
Europeans’ First Contact With Iroquois Happened up to 100 Years Later Than Expected
December 05, 2018, Discover Magazine by Roni Dengler
A new study shows the historical dates of key archaeological sites associated with Europeans’ first contact with indigenous communities are off by nearly 100 years. The discovery “dramatically rewrites” the history of northeastern North America, researchers report today in the journal Science Advances.

“It will really change how we understand the history … of this entire period, just before and during early contact with European civilization,” Sturt Manning, a paleoclimate scientist at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, who led the new research, said.

posted on Colonial Sense: 09/10/2019 -- Followup
The $450 million question: Where is Leonardo da Vinci's 'Salvator Mundi'?
June 15, 2019, CNN by Oscar Holland
When bids for Leonardo da Vinci's "Salvator Mundi" hit $200 million there was an audible gasp in the auction room. At the $300 million mark, onlookers broke into applause.

By the time the painting sold for $450.3 million, Christie's in New York had witnessed one of the most dramatic moments in recent art history. Once dismissed as a copy and sold for just £45 ($57) in the 1950s, this mysterious depiction of Christ had become -- by some considerable margin -- the most expensive artwork ever to appear at auction.

And the drama didn't stop there.

posted on Colonial Sense: 09/09/2019 -- Followup
Statue of St. George Undergoes ‘Unrestoration’ to Salvage Botched Paint Job
June 24, 2019, Smithsonian by Meilan Solly
When a botched restoration attempt of a 500-year-old sculpture of St. George in northern Spain went viral last summer, commentators couldn't resist weighing in: The well-meaning paint job, many pointed out, made the wooden statue look more like Tintin than a legendary dragon slayer.

Thanks to a roughly $34,000 USD “unrestoration” project, the statue—housed at St. Michael’s Church in the northern Spanish province of Navarra—has resumed a semblance of its original, 16th-century appearance. As Palko Karasz reports for The New York Times, experts from the local government’s culture department stripped the sculpture of its showy paint layers, assessed damage inflicted by the use of materials and processes “completely incompatible with the restoration of works of art,” and largely restored the walnut wood saint to his pre-2018 state.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 459Online Resources Links: 614Recipes: 481
Census People: 11,329 | Pix: 5,187 (45.79%) | Countries: 10,540 (93.04%) | Dates: 3,662 (32.32%) | Bio: 10,127 (89.39%) | TLs: 1,406 (12.41%)/3,733 (48.35%) | Links: 16,603 (146.55%) | Gallery: 57 (0.50%) | Notes: 1,768 (15.61%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 138 | Pix: 2 (1.45%) | Countries: 138 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 86 (62.32%) | TLs: 2 (1.45%)/9 | Links: 114 (82.61%) | Gallery: 114 (82.61%) | Notes: 114 (82.61%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,408Broadsheet Archive: 3,017Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,721    Tagged: 6,378 (82.61%)   With Links: 4,420 (57.25%)   Total Links: 5,566
Colonial Quotes: 2,994Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5
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