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Edward Vernon
a British naval officer. He had a long and distinguished career, rising to the rank of admiral after 46 years service. As a vice admiral during the War of Jenkins' Ear, in 1739 he was responsible for the capture of Porto Bello, seen as expunging the failure of Admiral Hosier there in a previous conflict. However, his later amphibious operation against Cartagena de Indias suffered a severe defeat. Vernon also served as a Member of Parliament (MP) on three occasions and was out-spoken on naval matters in Parliament, making him a controversial figure.

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Divination -- foretelling events, predicting the future -- using the entrails, usually plucked from a fowl. Thomas Urquhart in his translation (1693) of Francois Rabelais, uses the form extispicine; Bailey (1751) has extispice; the most frequent form is extispicy. One that inspected the entrails of the sacrificial victims was an extispex, from Latin exta (used also in English), entrails + specere, spex-, to look at.

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Early Republic
During the War of 1812, which lightly defended town was attacked and captured by an amphibious assault?
  1. Plattsburg

  2. Kingston

  3. Washington

  4. York

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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
Equal laws protecting equal rights -- the best guarantee of loyalty and love of country.
— James Madison
Letter to Jacob de la Motta, August 1820

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March, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results04/08/20
An Account Of Two Voyages: Chapter 2
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This Day in Early Modern History -- April 9th

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1538-Danish king Christian III enters the Schmalkaldic League 
 •  1548-Battle of Jaquijahuana, Peru: Pedro de la Gasca beats Gonzalo Pizarro
 •  1555-Marcello Cervini elected Pope Marcellus II
 •  1609-Spain and Netherlands sign 12 Year Resistant Pact
 •  1621-Spain and Netherlands' 12 Year Resistant Pact ends 
 •  1667-First public art exhibition (Palais-Royale, Paris) 
 •  1682-Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, claims lower Mississippi (Louisiana) for France 
 •  1691-French troops occupy Mons 
 •  1778-Jeremiah Wadsworth named commissary general
 •  1782-The Battle of the Saintes, between England and France, begins in the West Indies, continues for next three days
 •  1783-Tippu Sahib drives out English from Bednore India 
 •  1808-Mayor Wolters offers French king Napoleon III town hall as a palace 
 •  1814-Elias Canneman (Lib) resigns as minister of Finance 
 •  1816-African Methodist Episcopal Church organizes in Philadelphia 
 •  1829-Danzig (Gdansk) dike break flood kills 1,200 
 •  1831-Robert Jenkins loses an ear, starts war between Britain and Spain
 •  1833-First tax-supported public library in US opens in Peterborough, NH
 •  1848-Piedmontese army cross before Austrians try (but fail) to destroy) the Goito bridge, leading up to the Battle of Goito
 •  1859-Mark Twain receives steamboat pilot's license


 •  1649-  James Scott -- Military
 •  1717-  Georg Matthias Monn -- Composers
 •  1745-  Jasper Yeates -- Legal
 •  1755-  William Birch -- Artists
 •  1758-  Fisher Ames -- Governance
 •  1760-  William Wemyss -- MilitaryGovernance
 •  1773-  Etienne Aignan -- Writers
 •  1778-  Louis de Beaupoil de Saint-Aulaire -- Writers
 •  1797-  Pierre Carmouche -- Writers
 •  1802-  Elias Lonnrot -- WritersPhysicians
 •  1809-  Henriette Gislesen -- Writers
 •  1816-  Charles-Eugene Delaunay -- Astronomers
 •  1821-  Charles Baudelaire -- Writers


 •  1553-  Francois Rabelais -- Writers
 •  1557-  Mikael Agricola -- Clergy
 •  1626-  Francis Bacon -- GovernanceWritersScientistsLegal
 •  1693-  Roger de Rabutin -- Writers
 •  1707-  Jean Gallois -- Writers
 •  1754-  Christian Wolff -- Writers
 •  1768-  Sarah Fielding -- Writers
 •  1790-   Mohammed III -- Governance
 •  1803-  Mihaly Bakos -- WritersEducators
 •  1804-  Jacques Necker -- GovernanceCommerce
 •  1806-   William V -- Governance
 •  1810-  Alessandro Malaspina -- ExplorersNaval
 •  1854-  Jules-Edouard Alboize de Pujol -- Writers
  -  Antoine Jay -- Writers
 •  1857-  Antonio Maria Esquivel -- Artists
 •  1858-  Auguste Francois Chomel -- WritersPhysicians

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 04/08/2020
'Black Patriots' Were Heroes Of The Revolution — But Not The History Books
February 16, 2020, NPR by Leila Fadel
A new documentary, Black Patriots: Heroes of the Revolution, introduces us to heroes of the American Revolution who aren't typically found in history books. They are a writer, a double agent, a martyr and a soldier — and they are all black.

Kareem Abdul-Jabbar is the executive producer. He is a Hall of Fame basketball player, writer, activist, and in 2016 the recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/06/2020
Was Anne Boleyn buried in the Tower of London?
March 27, 2020, Heritage daily by Diarmaid Walshe
Anne Boleyn, Queen of England and second wife of Henry VIII was executed within the grounds of the Tower of London. Her crime was a trumpeted up charge of adultery with two men of the court, and incest with her brother. The real reason for her execution was to remove Anne, who was an obstacle to Henry remarrying and having an heir.

After Henry set aside his first wife Catherine of Argon, he broke with the Church of Rome to allow him to marry Anne. Henry and Anne were married on the 25th January 1533 and on the 23rd of May 1533 Anne was crowned Queen of England.

While Anne gave Henry a daughter, the future Queen Elizabeth I, she failed to produce the male heir that Henry was desperate for. This failure caused Anne’s days as wife number two to be numbered. Henry by this time had identified a replacement, Jane Seymour, one of Anne’s ladies in waiting.

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/04/2020
Building a Digital Archive for Decaying Paper Documents, Preserving Centuries of Records about Enslaved People
January 06, 2020, Snopes/The Conversation by Daniel Genkins
Paper documents are still priceless records of the past, even in a digital world. Primary sources stored in local archives throughout Latin America, for example, describe a centuries-old multi-ethnic society grappling with questions of race, class and religion.

However, paper archives are vulnerable to flooding, humidity, insects, and rodents, among other threats. Political instability can cut off money used to maintain archives and institutional neglect can transform precious records into moldy rubbish.

Working closely with colleagues from around the world, I build digital archives and specialized tools that help us learn from those records, which trace the lives of free and enslaved people of African descent in the Americas from the 1500s to the 1800s. Our effort, the Slave Societies Digital Archive, is one of many humanities projects that have accumulated substantial collections of digital images of paper documents.

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/02/2020
The Bride Ships Of 1620, Colonial America's First Transatlantic Party Buses
October 04, 2019, Ranker by Cheryl Adams Richkoff
Jamestown, Virginia, arose as the first permanent English settlement in the New World, largely thanks to the strength and resilience of the Jamestown colony brides. The initial group of settlers, all male, arrived and built James Fort in 1607, a private, corporate adventure. Much opportunity, along with much risk, lay waiting in the New World. But within a year, the men already complained about the lack of female company. To satisfy the colonial men, the Virginia Company sent over the bride ships of 1619, enticing the women with hopes for a better life while satiating the men's demands. Ninety women were selected that year, with a smaller group chosen and sent out several years later.

Commonly referred to as the tobacco brides of Jamestown, similar to the casket girls who settled in Louisiana in the 18th century, these women gained new rights and freedoms that Europe kept out of their reach. Despite how pop culture commonly depicts them, Jamestown colony women married who they liked, and many actually owned property of their own, something unheard of in Europe. While life was definitely not easy for them, the women of Jamestown were instrumental in creating new lives and new opportunities for the future women of colonial America.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/31/2020
In Blackbeard Pirate Ship Case, Supreme Court Scuttles Copyright Claims
March 24, 2020, NPR by Nina Totenberg
Ruling unanimously in favor of states' rights on Monday, the U.S. Supreme Court said that a videographer who spent two decades documenting the salvaging of Blackbeard's ship cannot sue the state of North Carolina in federal court for using his videos without his permission.

Although the decision had more to do with mundane copyright law than the law of the high seas, it was a victory for states claiming immunity from copyright infringement lawsuits.

The case before the court began with the 1996 discovery of the sunken remains of a French slave ship captured by the infamous pirate Blackbeard in 1717, and renamed by him The Queen Anne's Revenge. The vessel became the pirate's flagship. With 40 cannons and 300 men, it sailed around the Caribbean and up the U.S. coast. But in 1718, just a year later, it ran aground just a mile off Beaufort, N.C., and sank.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/29/2020
Trump Copies New Orleans’ Tragic 1853 Yellow Fever Playbook
March 28, 2020, The Daily Beast by Jason Berry
After two weeks of skyrocketing coronavirus cases, Orleans Parish—the Louisiana county that includes the city of New Orleans—on Friday recorded the highest per capita death rate in the U.S. from COVID-19, according to The Times-Picayune/ The New Orleans Advocate.

...New Orleans is no stranger to epidemics. Yellow fever ravaged the city throughout the 19th century. Some years were particularly bad, and 1853 was the worst, when yellow fever killed 8,647 people out of a population of 116,000. Although public knowledge of the virus’s cause, and cure, lay far in the future, a big part of the mortality rate could be blamed on the city’s leaders, who for decade after decade, epidemic after epidemic, persistently ignored the known benefits of street sanitation, proper drainage, and clean water. The mosquitos that carried the virus never had to look far to find a home.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/27/2020
A Shipwreck Off Florida’s Coast Pits Archaeologists Against Treasure Hunters
January 22, 2020, Smithsonian Magazine by Jill Neimark
Most visitors come to Cape Canaveral, on the northeast coast of Florida, for the tourist attractions. It’s home to the second-busiest cruise ship port in the world and is a gateway to the cosmos. Nearly 1.5 million visitors flock here every year to watch rockets, spacecraft, and satellites blast off into the solar system from Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, reminding us of the restless reach of our species. Nearly 64 kilometers of undeveloped beach and 648 square kilometers of protected refuge fan out from the cape’s sandy shores. And then there’s the draw of relics like Turtle Mound, a vast hill containing 27,000 cubic meters of oyster shells left by Indigenous tribes several thousand years ago.

Yet some of Cape Canaveral’s most storied attractions lie unseen, wedged under the sea’s surface in mud and sand, for this part of the world has a reputation as a deadly ship trap. Over the centuries, dozens of stately Old World galleons smashed, splintered, and sank on this irregular stretch of windy Florida coast. They were vessels built for war and commerce, traversing the globe carrying everything from coins to ornate cannons, boxes of silver and gold ingots, chests of emeralds and porcelain, and pearls from the Caribbean—the stuff of legends.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/25/2020
500 Years After Leonardo Da Vinci's Death, France Celebrates His Life And Work
November 29, 2019, NPR by Eleanor Beardsley
The largest-ever collection of works by Leonardo da Vinci is drawing record crowds at the Louvre in Paris this year, the 500th anniversary of the artist's death. The Louvre has brought together more than 100 paintings, drawings and manuscripts for the exhibition, which opened in October and will end in February.

Leonardo was a perfectionist, which is why, experts say, he produced only about 15 paintings. The exhibition includes 11 of them, the most ever brought together in one place. The Louvre keeps five of his paintings in its permanent collection.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/23/2020
Rare portrait of teenage Mozart sells for $4.4 million at auction
November 27, 2019, CNN by Matthew Robinson
A rare portrait of a teenage Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart smashed auction estimates to sell for over 4 million euros ($4.4 million) in Paris on Wednesday.

The portrait, dating from 1770 and attributed to the Italian painter Giambettino Cignaroli, depicts a 13-year-old Mozart playing a harpsichord, wearing a white wig and red dress coat.

posted on Colonial Sense: 03/21/2020
First Thanksgiving wasn’t like what you were taught in school – Here’s the true story
November 24, 2019, Fox News by Newt Gingrich
As we gather with family and friends later this week for the Thanksgiving holiday, I wanted to devote an episode of my "Newt’s World" podcast to the real history behind this uniquely American tradition.

When most people imagine the first Thanksgiving, they think of the Mayflower Pilgrims, donning tall black hats with big buckles on their shoes, gathering outdoors with feather-wearing Native Americans at a long table near Plymouth Rock. They are celebrating with a grand feast of turkey, bread,and fall vegetables.

This is a lovely image – and it carries nostalgia for the holiday – but it’s only partly true.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 596Online Resources Links: 616Recipes: 481
Census People: 11,454 | Pix: 5,274 (46.05%) | Countries: 10,661 (93.08%) | Dates: 3,868 (33.77%) | Bio: 10,240 (89.40%) | TLs: 1,410 (12.31%)/3,739 (48.40%) | Links: 18,021 (157.33%) | Gallery: 106 (0.93%) | Notes: 1,823 (15.92%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 142 | Pix: 2 (1.41%) | Countries: 142 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 88 (61.97%) | TLs: 2 (1.41%)/9 | Links: 118 (83.10%) | Gallery: 118 (83.10%) | Notes: 118 (83.10%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,408Broadsheet Archive: 3,128Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,725    Tagged: 6,382 (82.61%)   With Links: 4,439 (57.46%)   Total Links: 5,590
Colonial Quotes: 3,188Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
Downloads:   Articles: 9  Music: 12  Wallpaper: 6  Radio Shows: 5

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