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Joseph Franz Karl Lanner
an Austrian dance music composer. He is best remembered as one of the earliest Viennese composers to reform the waltz from a simple peasant dance to something that even the highest society could enjoy, either as an accompaniment to the dance, or for the music's own sake. He was just as famous as his friend and musical rival Johann Strauss I, who was better known outside of Austria in their day because of his concert tours abroad, in particular, to France and England.

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As an adjective: convenient, suitable. Used in the 17th century. Via French from Latin com, together + modus, measure. Applied to women in the 18th century, meaning accommodating, usually with bad implications. Steele in THE CONSCIOUS LOVERS (1722) speaks of one of those commode ladies who lend out beauty for hire. Hence, as a noun: (1) a procuress. This sense was also used figuratively, as when Gibber in the Epilogue to his version of JULIUS CAESAR (1721) spoke of making the tragic muse commode to love. (2) A small piece of furniture for holding a chamber pot. (3) A tall headdress for women, worn especially in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, built on a wire framework, often with silk or lace streamers hanging over the shoulders. The commode, however (as Joseph Addison pointed out in his essay on LADIES' HEADDRESS IN THE SPECTATOR, 1711, No. 98), never aspired to so great an extravagance as in the 14th century, when it was built up in a couple of cones or spires, which stood so exceedingly high on each side of the head, that a woman who was but a pigmy without her headdress appeared like a colossus upon putting it on. This headdress was also called a fontange (from French Fontanges, the estate of a mistress of King Louis XIV). The olden fontanges, Joseph Addisoncontinued, were pointed like steeples, and had long pieces of crape fastened to the tops of them, which were curiously fringed, and hung down their backs like streamers.

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Daily Colonial Quote -

More notable sayings can be found in the Colonial Quotes section
What is human warfare but just this; an effort to make the laws of God and nature take sides with one party.
— Henry David Thoreau

Latest Activity

Today8 Auction Results items added/edited
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Recent Articles on Colonial Sense

May, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results06/19/20
An Account Of Two Voyages: Chapter 2
Regional History: Journals06/11/20
April, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results05/09/20
The White Pine Series: Connecticut
Architecture: Houses04/22/20
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Architecture: Houses04/22/20
The White Pine Series: New York
Architecture: Houses04/22/20
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Architecture: Houses04/22/20
March, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results04/08/20
February, 2020
Antiques: Auction Results03/11/20
Travels in the American Colonies: Journal Of An Officer Who Travelled In America
Regional History: Journals03/03/20

This Day in Early Modern History -- July 2nd

click on      for links for date verification; or go to the Timeline for more events


 •  1576-Muitende Spanish soldiers conquer Zierik Sea 
 •  1598-Olivier van Noort leaves Rotterdam with four poorly-equipped ships and a plan to attack Spanish ships in the Pacific and to trade with China and the Spice Islands
 •  1600-Battle of Nieuwpoort: Prince Maurice of Orange's army occupies Nieuwpoort Flanders, Netherlands
  -Battle of Nieuwpoort: Earl Maurice of Orange beats Spanish Army
 •  1644-Battle of Marston Moor: Parliamentary forces defeat royalists
 •  1681-Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, arrested for high-treason
 •  1687-King James II disbands English parliament
 •  1747-Battle of Lauffeld: France beat English/Dutch army
 •  1776-Continental Congress votes for independence, resolves "these United Colonies are and of right ought to be Free and Independent States"
 •  1777-Vermont's legislature agree to become tha first American colony to abolish slavery entirely and to provide full voting rights for African American males
 •  1787-Marquis de Sade shouts from Bastille that prisoners are being slaughtered
 •  1794-Second Battle of Seneffe: France-Austria 
 •  1808-Simon Fraser completes his trip down Fraser River, BC, lands at Musqueam 
 •  1809-Chief Tecumseh urges Indians to unite against whites
 •  1839-Abdulmecid I succeeds Mahmud II as Sultan of Turkey
  -Mutiny on the La Amistad slave ship
 •  1843-An alligator falls from sky during a Charleston South Carolina thunderstorm 
 •  1847-Envelope bearing first U.S. 10 cents stamps, still exists today 
 •  1849-Giuseppe Garibaldi in Rome begins hunger strike 
 •  1850-Benjamin Lane patents gas mask with a breathing apparatus
 •  1858-Partial emancipation of Russian serfs 


 •  1597-  Theodoor Rombouts -- Artists
 •  1724-  Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock -- Writers
 •  1784-  Teresa Belloc-Giorgi -- Composers
 •  1817-  Carl Richard Unger -- Writers


 •  1536-  John Stewart -- Governance
 •  1554-  Pedro Cieza de Leon -- MilitaryWriters
 •  1566-  Michel de Nostradamus -- WritersPhysicians
 •  1578-  Thomas Doughty [1] -- PiratesExplorers
 •  1621-  Thomas Harriot -- AstronomersWritersScientists
 •  1694-  Philip Christoph von Konigsmarck -- Military
 •  1700-  Lambert Doomer -- Artists
 •  1773-  Dirk van der Burg -- Artists
 •  1778-  Jean-Jacques Rousseau -- ComposersWriters
 •  1794-  Frantisek Xaver Pokorny -- Composers
 •  1798-  John Fitch -- InventorsScientistsCommerce
 •  1809-  Joseph Quesnel -- ComposersWriters
 •  1813-  Fanny de Beauharnais -- Writers
 •  1822-  Denmark Vesey -- Governance
 •  1843-  Samuel Hahnemann -- WritersPhysicians
 •  1850-  Robert Peel -- Governance

Latest Broadsheets -- Daily news from around the world about the Early Modern Era

Older articles can be found in the Broadsheet Archive
posted on Colonial Sense: 05/10/2020
X-ray analysis of artifacts from Henry VIII's warship the Mary Rose
April 28, 2020, by University of Warwick
21st century X-ray technology has allowed University of Warwick scientists to peer back through time at the production of the armor worn by the crew of Henry VIII's favored warship, the Mary Rose.

Three artifacts believed to be remains of chainmail recovered from the recovered hull have been analyzed by an international team of scientists led by the Universities of Warwick and Ghent using a state-of-the-art X-ray facility called XMaS (X-ray Materials Science) beamline.

posted on Colonial Sense: 05/08/2020
Salish Sea basin was one of continent's most densely populated areas when Europeans arrived
April 19, 2020, The Province (Canada) by Gordon McIntyre
Vancouver has the highest population density among Canadian municipalities, according to the 2016 census, and New Westminster, the City of North Vancouver, Victoria and White Rock all make the top 10.

It was like that, too, before the first Europeans arrived in the 1700s, according to a study published in the Journal of Northwest Anthropology that was co-written by Richard M. Hutchings of the Institute for Critical Heritage and Tourism.

The Salish Sea Basin was one of the “most densely populated” pre-contact geographical areas, Hutchings said from his home on Gabriola Island, which is home to 98 of the pre-contact sites the study counted. Immediately after contact, indigenous populations began crashing, he said. The arrival of diseases such as measles and smallpox carried by Europeans was primarily responsible.

posted on Colonial Sense: 05/06/2020
William Shakespeare: archaeology is revealing new clues about the Bard’s life (and death)
April 23, 2020, HeritageDaily by William Mitchell
William Shakespeare is widely regarded as one of the greatest authors of all time and one of the most important and influential people who has ever lived.

His written works (plays, sonnets and poems) have been translated into more than 100 languages and these are performed around the world.

There is also an enduring desire to learn more about the man himself. Countless books and articles have been written about Shakespeare’s life. These have been based primarily on the scholarly analysis of his works and the official record associated with him and his family. Shakespeare’s popularity and legacy endures, despite uncertainties in his life story and debate surrounding his authorship and identity.

posted on Colonial Sense: 05/04/2020
What Washington's inaugural address can teach us
April 30, 2020, CNN by John Avlon
It was morning again in America.

On April 30th, 1789, George Washington took the oath of office and became the first president of the United States of America.

The intersection of Broad and Wall Streets in lower Manhattan were packed with jubilant citizens. They had suffered through the British occupation during the war for independence and the chaos of the Articles of the Confederation, when the young nation looked like it might fall apart with too weak a central government. Now there was new optimism in the spring air.

posted on Colonial Sense: 05/02/2020
Everything You Wanted To Know About The Sons Of Liberty
August 27, 2019, Ranker by Aaron Edwards
You’ve heard about them in history class, but who were the Sons of Liberty, really? The Sons of Liberty was founded by many men you probably haven't heard of, born out of the growing discontent in the American colonies over how the British ruled. Eventually, some of the most famous Founding Fathers also joined the Sons of Liberty, and together, they would go on to create a nation based on lofty ideals.

After their inception following the passing of the Stamp Act, propaganda, intimidation, destruction of property, and violence were not above the members of the Sons of Liberty. By the time the Boston Tea Party occurred, they had quite a notorious reputation. So, if you’re curious about the gang-like group of men who stirred up enough public discontent to pave the road for a revolution, check out the list below!

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/30/2020
Mona Lisa for $60K? The curious market for Old Masters replicas
January 24, 2020, CNN by Oscar Holland
To an untrained eye, the "Mona Lisa" up for auction at Sotheby's next week is indistinguishable from its namesake hanging in the Louvre.

The columns painted either side of the canvas are just a small giveaway that this isn't Leonardo da Vinci's original. But there is another, more noticeable difference: the price tag.

Produced during the 1600s, perhaps more than a century after Leonardo's death, this "Mona Lisa" is expected to sell for $60,000 to $80,000. And in a highly unusual move, Sotheby's has included a batch of six other copies in Thursday's sale.

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/28/2020
Did an Illuminati Conspiracy Theory Help Elect Thomas Jefferson?
March 29, 2020, Politico by Colin Dickey
On July 4, 1798, Timothy Dwight, president of Yale University and one of the most powerful men in New England, delivered a sermon at his college titled, The Duty of Americans at the Present Crisis. The present crisis, he explained, was a new and terrifying threat to the young democracy: the Illuminati. Fears of the secret society had been growing for the past year, and Dwight now warned the “ultimate objects” of this group were nothing less than “the overthrow of religion, government, and human society civil and domestic. These they pronounce to be so good, that murder, butchery and war, however extended and dreadful, are declared by them to be completely justifiable, if necessary for these great purposes.”

Dwight, a Federalist, was hardly alone. Among the others sounding the alarm on the Illuminati were other well-known Federalists, including his brother, Theodore, a prominent lawyer, and pastor and geographer Jedidiah Morse (known as the “father of American geography,” as well as the father of telegraph inventor Samuel Morse), who authored a sermon in 1798 warning that the Illuminati sought to “root out and abolish Christianity, and overthrow all civil government.” Jedidiah Morse’s text, in turn, received supportive letters from both George Washington and former chief justice and governor of New York John Jay for his efforts in bringing light to the subject.

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/26/2020
The lost portrait of Charles Dickens
December 24, 2019, BBC (UK) by Lucinda Hawksley
In the 1880s, not long before her death, Scottish artist Margaret Gillies was approached by the writer Frederick George Kitton, who wanted to know what had happened to one of Gillies’ early portraits. Kitton was writing a biography of Charles Dickens and he knew Gillies had painted the author in 1843, but where was the picture now? Gillies replied she didn’t know, saying she had “lost sight of it”. This comment could be applied to her own legacy. Like so many female artists, it was destined that the future would “lose sight” of Margaret Gillies.

Born in London in 1803, Gillies was the fourth in a family of five children. Her mother died when she was eight, and her father sent Margaret and her older sister Mary to his native Scotland, where they lived in Edinburgh with an aunt and uncle. Their uncle, Adam Gillies, Lord Gillies, was a judge, and paid for the sisters to be educated. Margaret’s artistic talent was recognised and, in the 1820s, she was taught by Scottish miniaturist Frederick Cruickshank. Later in her career she would start to experiment with larger-format paintings, and in the early 1850s she spent time in Paris with the brothers Ary and Henri Scheffer. These Dutch-born artists ran one of the most fashionable art studios in Paris, and their neighbour was the author George Sand (the pen name of Amantine Lucile Aurore Dupin), a woman who, like Margaret Gillies, lived an unconventional life.

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/24/2020
How Renaissance Plague Doctors Got Their Distinctive Look
April 04, 2020, InsideHook by Tobias Carroll
If you’ve been reading up on the history of pandemics, you’ve probably run across images of plague doctors in bygone centuries. Their attire is distinctive and ominous, the kind of uniform that looks almost as menacing as the disease it was designed to treat. But while those uniforms might have become ubiquitous in terms of depictions of disease in centuries past, what’s not as apparent is how that look came about in the first place.

At Atlas Obscura, Isaac Schultz does a deep dive into this history. It turns out the iconic plague doctor look is nearly 400 years old:

The uniform is typically attributed to Charles de Lorme, a chief physician to several French kings, who around 1630 proposed the need for such wear to keep health workers safe from disease. It consisted of a thick black overcoat, gloves, circular glass to seal the eyes behind the mask, and often a wand, to inspect patients from a distance (and, when necessary, to fend them off as well).

posted on Colonial Sense: 04/22/2020
The tragedy of art’s greatest supermodel
January 07, 2020, BBC by Lucinda Hawksley
In the winter of 1849-1850, the artists Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt were painting together, when their friend Walter Howell Deverell burst into the studio. The visitor announced excitedly, “You fellows can’t tell what a stupendously beautiful creature I have found… She’s like a queen, magnificently tall.” With these words, the unlikely beauty of Elizabeth Siddal began to make history.

Today, few people remember the artist Deverell – who died of Bright’s (kidney) disease at the age of 27 – but he was a vibrant member of the group of artists and writers that revolved around the newly formed Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. This secret society of seven young men had been founded in 1848 by Rossetti, Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais, students at London’s Royal Academy. As is being highlighted in the National Portrait Gallery’s exhibition, Pre-Raphaelite Sisters, the Pre-Raphaelite movement also encompassed female models, artists and writers. ‘Lizzie’ Siddal began as a model, then learnt to paint, and also wrote poetry.

Colonial Sense Stats

Event Calendar Listings: 417Online Resources Links: 616Recipes: 481
Census People: 11,484 | Pix: 5,289 (46.06%) | Countries: 10,692 (93.10%) | Dates: 3,948 (34.38%) | Bio: 10,269 (89.42%) | TLs: 1,418 (12.35%)/3,751 (48.54%) | Links: 18,650 (162.40%) | Gallery: 106 (0.92%) | Notes: 1,854 (16.14%)
Architecture: Fortifications: 142 | Pix: 2 (1.41%) | Countries: 142 (100.00%) | Dates: 0 (0.00%) | Bio: 88 (61.97%) | TLs: 2 (1.41%)/9 | Links: 118 (83.10%) | Gallery: 118 (83.10%) | Notes: 118 (83.10%)
Dictionary Entries: 1,408Broadsheet Archive: 3,144Food and Farming Items: 200
Timeline Events: 7,727    Tagged: 6,385 (82.63%)   With Links: 4,451 (57.60%)   Total Links: 5,602
Colonial Quotes: 3,308Trivia Challenge: 293Videos: 93
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